Rioplatense Spanish is a dialect of Spanish spoken in the River Plate basin of Argentina and Uruguay. It is what you may know as “Argentine Spanish”.
There are other dialects in Argentina, but Rioplatense Spanish covers two of the most populated provinces of the country, which are Buenos Aires (where the capital city is located) and Santa Fe. It also extends to the Patagonian region in southern Argentina.
Before we get into what makes Rioplatense Spanish unique, we have to talk about voseo. Voseo is the use of “vos” instead of “tú”. It is an essential part of Rioplatense Spanish, but it can also be found in other varieties of Spanish, such as in Central American Spanish.
If you want to speak and understand Rioplatense Spanish, or all the Spanish dialects of Argentina, you must learn how voseo works first.
Voseo can vary according to the region you’re in, but it always implies that the informal second-person singular pronoun “tú” and prepositional object “ti” are replaced by “vos”.
Here are some examples of how voseo works in Rioplatense Spanish:
|Te hablo a ti (I’m talking to you)||Te hablo a vos|
|Voy contigo (I’m going with you)||Voy con vos|
|[Tú] Eres increíble. (You are amazing)||[Vos] Sos increíble|
Have you noticed how “eres” turned into “sos” in the last example? This is because the pronoun “vos” has associated verbal forms that are different from the ones associated with “tú”.
Take a look at the accentuation and how it changes the diphthongs in the following examples.
|Tú comes mucho. (You eat much).||Vos comés mucho.|
|Tú puedes hacerlo. (You can do it).||Vos podés hacerlo.|
|Nunca recuerdas nada. (You never remember anything).||Nunca recordás nada [vos].|
|¿Vienes más tarde? (Are you coming later?)||¿Venís más tarde?|
|¿Sales el sábado? (Are you going out on Saturday?)||¿Salís el sábado?|
The stress shift is derived from the elimination of the “i” in ancient “vos” inflections: vos coméis, vos podéis, vos recordáis, etc.
The voseo also affects the imperative forms of the verbs:
|Come un poco más. (Eat some more).||Comé un poco más.|
|Recuerda las reglas. (Remember the rules).||Recordá las reglas.|
|Ven aquí. (Come here).||Vení aquí (or acá in “Argentine Spanish”).|
|Escucha esta canción. (Listen to this song).||Escuchá esta canción.|
|Espérame ahí. (Wait [for me] there).||Esperame ahí. (Stress in “ra”).|
|Ve a tu casa. (Go home).||Andá a tu casa*.|
* We don’t use the imperative form of the verb “ir” in voseo, but rather we use the imperative form of the verb “andar” (“anda”) with the stress in the last syllable.
In Rioplatense Spanish, we prefer the simple past over the present perfect.
|Aquí no ha pasado nada. (Nothing has happened here).||Acá no pasó nada.|
|Hemos venido en son de paz. (We’ve come in peace).||Vinimos en son de paz.|
|¿Han cenado tus amigos? (Have your friends had dinner?).||¿Cenaron tus amigos?|
An exception occurs in the subjunctive mood. We would say “espero que no haya pasado nada”, “no creo que hayan venido en son de paz”, “no me importa lo que tus amigos hayan cenado”.
We also keep it simple when we talk about the future. Normally, in Rioplatense Spanish, we don’t use the future tense to describe actions that will happen later. The future tense is limited to expressing doubts about what might happen in the future: “¿pasará algo?”, “¿vendrán en son de paz?”, “¿cenarán tus amigos?”.
But we want to affirm that something will happen, that someone will come in peace, that our friends will have dinner, etc., we opt for the equivalent of “going to” in English —a verbal phrase built through the verb “ir”.
Following the previous example:
|Aquí no pasará nada. (Nothing will happen here).||Acá no va a pasar nada.|
|Iremos* en son de paz. (We’ll go [somewhere] in peace. |
*The exact word should be “vendremos” but it doesn’t sound too natural here.
|Vamos a ir en son de paz.|
|Mis amigos cenarán. (My friends will have dinner).||Mis amigos van a cenar.|
Lunfardo is an argot that originated in the lower classes of the Rio de la Plata basin in the late 19th century, but now it is extended to all social strata, most likely thanks to tango.
Lunfardo supplies Rioplatense Spanish with a unique lexicon and can be considered a key element of the dialect.
It is influenced by the languages of immigration currents in Argentina, mainly from Italy, but there are also words that derive from French, Brazilian Portuguese, Spanish Caló (a mixed language spoken by Romani people in Spain), and a few loan words from indigenous languages such as Quechua, Mapuche, and Guaraní.
Lunfardo also features an inversion of syllables called vesre (from “revés”, meaning backwards, similar to English back slang).
|Afano (verb: afanar)||Old Spanish||Robbery / to steal|
|Groso||Brazilian Portuguese||Important, skilled|
|Laburo (verb: laburar)||Italian (“lavoro”)||Work / to work|
|Yeta||Italian (“iettatore”)||Bad luck|
|Garpar||Vesre (“pagar”)||To pay with money|
|Junar||Caló (“junar”)||To know|
|Chamuyar||Caló||To lie or persuade|
|Morfar||French (“morfer”)||To eat|
|Cana||French (“canne”)||Police / Prison|
According to the Ministry of Culture of Argentina, there are approximately 6,000 terms that belong to lunfardo. However, this is not a static number because the usage of words varies.
While some words might fall into disuse, the Argentine Academy of Lunfardo states that about 70 new words are added to lunfardo each year.
Here are some examples of how the lunfardo can be used:
|—¿No fuiste a laburar? Sos un gil, te van a rajar. —Después les meto un chamuyo.||“You didn’t go to work? You are an idiot, they are going to fire you.” “I’ll cook something up later”.|
|Abrigate, que hace un ofri…||Wrap yourself up, [since] it’s very cold.|
|Me voy a fumar un pucho.||I’m going to smoke a cigarette.|
|—¿Querés un feca? —No, mejor vamos a morfar.||“Do you want a coffee?” “No, we better go eating”.|
|Vi una mina con unas gambas hermosas en el bondi.||I saw a woman/girl with beautiful legs on the bus.|
|Garpale o vamos todos en cana.||Pay to him/her, or we’re all going to jail.|
|—¿Cuánto te costó esa pilcha?|
—Ni preguntes, fue un afano.
|“How much did that cloth cost you?” “Don’t even ask, it was a robbery” [too expensive]|
|—Tremendo quilombo armaron esos pibes. —Sí, ahí viene la tuya.||“Those guys made a huge mess.”|
“Yes, the police is coming.”
|¿Quién es esa? No la juno.||Who is that [woman]? I don’t know her.|
|¡Gracias por cubrirme, sos un groso!||Thank you for covering me, you are amazing!|
“Che” is an interjection that is used as a vocative to attract someone’s attention in Rioplatense Spanish. It is said that Argentine revolutionary Ernesto “Che” Guevara used it a lot, that’s why his Cuban allies nicknamed him “che”.
The origin of the word “che” is unclear. What we know is that it is not only present in Argentina and Uruguay, but also in the neighboring Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), some areas of Paraguay, the Falkland Islands (also written as chay), Valencia and Catalonia (where it is spelled as xe), and even the Philippines (a colony of Spain until 1898).
The expression “¡che, vos!” equates to “hey, you!” in English, although the word “che” by itself is sufficient to call someone’s attention in Argentina and Uruguay.
|¡Che, María! ¿Me pasás el mate?||Hey, María! Can you pass me the mate?|
|¿Adónde vas, che?||Hey, where are you going? / Where are you going, dude/buddy/etc.?|
Rioplatense Spanish is different from other varieties of Spanish because of its pronunciation, too.
The main characteristic of Rioplatense Spanish in terms of pronunciation is the use of yeísmo, a phonetic phenomenon in which the double L and the consonant Y are pronounced like the English sound "sh".
Therefore, in Rioplatense Spanish, there is no phonetic difference between "playa" (beach) and "caballo" (horse). We say "plasha" and "cabasho" like Y and LL are the same letter. Phonetically, it is [ʃ] instead of [ʎ].
Only people in some northern provinces of Argentina make a difference between these consonants. There, words like "lluvia" (rain) can sound more like "iuvia" than "shuvia" - just like what happens in the rest of Latin America.
We also have seseo, a phonetic phenomenon in which both the S and the Z sound like an S (phonetically: /θ/ sounds like /s/). This is also common in other areas of Latin America and even Spain, such as the zones of Andalucia and the Canary Islands.
Additionally, in Rioplatense Spanish, we mix up the sound of "ñ" with "ni". In phonetics: /ɲ/ turns into /nj/.
All of these features lead to several homophones that you won't find in Iberic Spanish.
Here are some examples:
|Casa (house)||Caza (hunt)|
|Asar (to roast)||Azar (random)|
|Valla (fence)||Vaya (from the verb ir, meaning to go)|
|Calló (from the verb callar, meaning to shut up)||Cayó (from the verb caer, meaning to fall)|
|Huraño (unsociable)||Uranio (uranium)|
You have to take this into account when talking with someone who speaks Rioplatense Spanish. Sharpen your ears and consider the context for a more appropriate interpretation of what is being said.