Hindi is the most widely spoken language in India and the official language of the Indian government. Hindi is closely related to Sanskrit, an ancient language that originated in the Indian subcontinent over 3,000 years ago.
There are many Hindi vocabulary words which originate from Sanskrit. The table below contains some examples of such words:
|शांति (shaanti)||शान्ति (shaanti)||peace|
|आग (aag)||अग्नि (agni)||fire|
|चांद (caand)||चन्द्र (candra)||moon|
|नदी (nadī)||नदी (nadī)||river|
|हृदय (hrday)||हृदय (hrdaya)||heart|
|प्यार (pyaar)||प्रिय (priya)||love|
|हर्ष (harsh)||हर्ष (harsha)||joy|
|सुख (sukh)||सुख (sukha)||happiness|
|वन (van)||वन (vana)||forest|
|स्मृति (smrti)||स्मृति (smrti)||memory|
|नाव (naav)||नावा (nāvā)||boat|
|द्वीप (dvīp)||द्वीप (dvīpá)||island|
|गीत (gīt)||गीत (gīta)||song|
|बुद्धि (buddhi)||बुद्धि (buddhi)||intelligence|
|प्रकाश (prakaash)||प्रकाश (prakaasha)||light|
|फल (phal)||फल (phala)||fruit|
|महान (mahaan)||महत् (mahat)||great|
|मार्ग (maarg)||मार्ग (mārga)||path|
|पैर (pair)||पद (pada)||foot|
|निद्रा (nidrā)||निद्रा (nidrā)||sleep|
|सत्य (satya)||सत्य (satya)||true|
|राजा (raaja)||राजन् (rājan)||king|
|सिंह (sinh)||सिंह (simha)||lion|
While Sanskrit has remained relatively free of linguistic influences, Hindi has absorbed many words from languages like Persian and English.
The Mughal Empire ruled over the Indian subcontinent between the 16th to the 19th centuries and had Persian as the official language of the court. As a result, Persian had a significant impact on Hindi, with many loanwords enriching its vocabulary.
|city||शहर (shahar)||شهر (šahr)|
|heart||दिल (dil)||دل (dil)|
|market||बाज़ार (baazaar)||بازار (bâzâr)|
Some of the English loanwords in Hindi come from the period of British colonial rule, while others come from the more recent globalization.
Sanskrit is a much older language than Hindi. Sanskrit has been around for over 3 thousand years (the oldest known Sanskrit text, the Rigveda was written between some time between 1500 and 1000 BCE). In contrast, Hindi is a more recent language which is less than one thousand years old.
Because Sanskrit has been used for such a long period, there are differences between the earlier form of Sanskrit (called Vedic Sanskrit) and the later form (called Classical Sanskrit).
A variety of writing systems have been used for the Sanskrit language, depending on the time in history and the location. Today it is common for Sanskrit texts to be written in the Devanagari script, which is also used to write in Hindi.
The Devanagari script is classified as an alphasyllabary, also called an “abugida” by some linguists. This type of script consists of symbols representing syllables rather than individual sounds.
The Devanagari script uses consonant symbols that have an inherent vowel. For instance, the symbol “त” represents the syllable “ta”. The default vowel in this writing system is 'a', which is a very common vowel in both Sanskrit and Hindi.
Additional marks are added to the symbol to change the vowel from the default. For example, “ति” corresponds to the syllable “ti”, and “तु” corresponds to the syllable “tu”.
To suppress the inherent vowel, an additional marker is used (which is called a Virama). For example, “त्” corresponds to the pure consonant “t”.
Sanskrit, when written using the Devanagari script, is highly phonetic because words are pronounced the way they are spelled. One way in which Hindi differs from Sanskrit is that it is less phonetic.
Hindi is considered less phonetic than Sanskrit due to a linguistic phenomenon known as “schwa deletion” in spoken Hindi. This refers to the non-pronunciation of one of the default vowels in some Hindi words, even though there is no Virama marker indicating its absence.
For example, the word “वन” means “forest” in both Sanskrit and in Hindi. In Sanskrit, this word is exactly as it is spelled: “vana”. However, in Hindi, it is pronounced “van”.
There are a few reasons why Hindi grammar is considered simpler than Sanskrit grammar. One of the main reasons is that Hindi has fewer noun cases than Sanskrit, which makes noun declension less complex.
Grammatical gender is also simpler in Hindi compared to Sanskrit. Each Sanskrit noun has one of three possible grammatical genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). For example:
In contrast, Hindi nouns have one of two possible grammatical genders (masculine and feminine).
In some ways, the relationship between Sanskrit and Hindi is similar to the relationship between Latin and Italian. Many Hindi vocabulary words come from Sanskrit, but there are significant grammatical differences between the two languages.