“My girlfriend turned up at my apartment, turned the lights on, and then turned the radiator up, despite turning my invitation down earlier”. Did you understand that sentence? For many people studying English, that sentence will prove very difficult to understand because of a specific type of expression.
That type of expression is called a ‘phrasal verb’. In the above sentence, each time that the verb ‘turn’ is used, it’s actually being used as part of a different phrasal verb. Phrasal verbs are an important part of English that you probably already use, even if you don’t know about them. To learn more about them, as well as learn a few new ones, read on.
Phrasal verbs are phrases and expressions that act as verbs. They indicate an action that takes place, just like a normal verb does. The structure of phrasal verbs can be any of the following:
Just like with ordinary verbs, phrasal verbs can appear in various tenses as well. When changing the tense of a phrasal verb, you simply have to conjugate the verb as you would do normally. Any prepositions and adverbs don’t need to be changed.
One of the difficulties when it comes to studying phrasal verbs is that their meaning is often idiomatic. That means that the meaning of the phrasal verb is different from the literal meaning of the words themselves. Take a look at the following example:
Do you see how different the literal meaning and phrasal verb meaning are? This is the case with many phrasal verbs, which make them difficult to understand if you haven’t studied that particular phrase before. As such, phrasal verbs are normally studied separately from the verb that they use, as it can be easy to confuse the two.
Another thing to be wary of when learning new phrasal verbs is that some of them have multiple meanings depending on the context. Let’s look at an example:
As you can see, even a single phrasal verb can have many very different meanings. When studying phrasal verbs, I recommend that you check that you understand the context that the phrase is used in, in addition to the meaning itself.
Some phrasal verbs can have their verb and adverb/preposition used separately in a sentence. Phrasal verbs that can do this are called ‘Separable’ phrasal verbs. When they are used separately, the sentence structure is this:
Verb > Object > Adverb/Preposition
Take > the sweater > off
When separated, phrasal verbs will always be used in this structure. In most scenarios, you can choose whether or not to separate a separable phrasal verb. However, if the object is a pronoun (it, him, etc.) then the phrasal verb must be split. Let’s take a look at these rules in action (the phrasal verb is in italics):
Take off the sweater. – Normal use of the phrasal verb.
Take the sweater off. – The separated phrasal verb.
Take it off. – The phrasal verb has been separated because the object is a pronoun.
Take off it. – This is incorrect, as the phrasal verb hasn’t been split even though the object is a pronoun.
Now that you know what phrasal verbs are and how to use them, let’s start learning some! This list is made up of a variety of commonly used phrasal verbs, so it’s a great place to start learning them. Let’s get into it!
To look for Phrasal verb meaning: To try to find Is it separable: No Example sentence: I’m looking for a green sports car.
To look forward to Phrasal verb meaning: To be excited about a future event Is it separable: No Example sentence: She was looking forward to going to the cinema.
To take off Phrasal verb meanings: To remove clothing, When an aircraft starts flying, To have time off of work/school Is it separable: Yes Example sentences: He took his shoes off. The plane is taking off. Jessica is taking today off.
To ask out Phrasal verb meaning: To invite someone on a date Is it separable: Yes Example sentence: I’m going to ask her out to dinner.
To break up Phrasal verb meaning: To end a relationship, To break into smaller pieces Is it separable: No, Yes Example sentence: She broke up with him last week. I broke the chocolate bar up into small pieces.
To eat out Phrasal verb meaning: To eat at a restaurant Is it separable: No Example sentence: I’m thinking of eating out tonight.
To break down Phrasal verb meaning: To stop working (machinery, cars), To start crying (normally in public), To hit something so hard that it falls over, To break into small pieces Is it separable: No, No, Yes, Yes Example sentence: My car broke down on the way to work today. She had an embarrassing break down in public. The firefighters broke the wooden door down. I’m breaking the chocolate bar down into small chunks.
To turn up Phrasal verb meaning: To increase something (normally temperature, volume), To appear suddenly Is it separable: Yes, No Example sentence: I turned the volume up. He turned up out of nowhere.
To turn down Phrasal verb meaning: To decrease something (normally temperature, volume), To refuse Is it separable: Yes Example sentence: Mom turned down the volume of the TV. I am going to turn down the offer.
To turn on Phrasal verb meaning: To switch on (machines, devices) Is it separable: Yes Example sentence: Turn the oven on.
So, now you know what phrasal verbs are, are you feeling ready to start trying them out? They’re an important part of English, so it’s important that you take the time to study them properly. You’ll master them in no time!